Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders, or PTLDs, are uncontrolled growths of cells called lymphocytes that may occur in transplant recipients after receiving a solid organ, such as a kidney or a lung, or stem cells. Transplant recipients require medications to suppress their immune systems which may contribute to the development of a PTLD. Normally, immune cells can…

Cannabis Use Disorder – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Cannabis Use Disorder – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Cannabis, or marijuana, is one of the most popular psychoactive substances worldwide, especially among teenagers. Although the specifics of cannabis’ addictive qualities are still very much under debate, cannabis dependence disorder is officially classified in the DSM-5 and prolonged, heavy use has been shown to cause some level of dependency. Cannabis comes from the flowers…

Prions (Spongiform encephalopathy)

Prions (Spongiform encephalopathy)

Spongiform encephalopathy can be broken down. Spongiform means sponge like, encephalo- refers to the brain, and -path refers to a disease process. So spongiform encephalopathy is a disease where the brain tissue degenerates and healthy tissue gets replaced by clusters of tiny liquid filled, thin-walled cavities called cysts, making the brain look like a sponge.…

Edward Syndrome (Trisomy 18) | USMLE Step 1 Mnemonic

Edward Syndrome (Trisomy 18) | USMLE Step 1 Mnemonic

Edward Scissorhands=Edward syndrome vote sign=trisomy 18 micrognathia low-set ears clenched hands with overlapping fingers prominent occiput delayed turtle=developmental delay headless turtle=early death (usually by 1 year) rocking chair=rocker-bottom feet ASD and VSD puppy=PAPP-A chorizo=human CHORIZO gonadotropin (β-hCG) inhibitory sign=inhibin-A stroller=estriol alphabet=AFP

Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) | USMLE Step 1 Mnemonic

Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) | USMLE Step 1 Mnemonic

wine rack=trisomy 21 highway junctions=nondisjunction unbalanced Robertsonian translocation mosaicism nasal bone dysplasia nuchal translucency bilious vomiting=duodenal atresia Hirschprung disease inner eye tattoo=epicanthal folds brushfield spots in eyes gap between 1st and 2nd toe palmar crease=simian crease demon=(Alzheimer) dementia complete AV septal defect alligator=ALL amulet=AML lymph node tree=lymphoma delayed turtle=developmental delay chorizo=human CHORIZO gonadotropin (β-hCG) inhibitory…

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, named after Dr. Jan Peutz, who first described it, and Dr. Harold Joseph Jeghers, who later reported on it, is a rare autosomal dominant condition in which individuals develop polyps throughout their gastrointestinal tract, as well as dark spots called melanotic macules in their mouth, lips, genitalia, palms, and soles. The large intestine…

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Slipped capital femoral epiphysis, is a common hip disorder in adolescence, in which the growth plate fractures. The result…

Hurler Syndrome and Hunter Syndrome | Lysosomal Storage Disorder Mnemonic

Hurler Syndrome and Hunter Syndrome | Lysosomal Storage Disorder Mnemonic

hurler and hunter syndromes ice-osomal storage=lysosomal storage disease mucous-ey sugar block=mucopolysaccharidoses mucopolysaccharide=glycosaminoglycan (GAG) deer man=dermatan sulfate hair pins=heparan sulfate small auto (smart car)=autosomal recessive α-L-iduronidase gargoylism liver lever=hepatosplenomegaly delayed turtle=developmental delay blocked air vent=airway obstruction fogged glasses=corneal clouding no fog=no corneal clouding aggressive hunter=aggressive behavior iduronate sulfatase small, X-shaped cross=X-linked recessive

Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic)

Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic)

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! If you were asked to describe a friend’s personality, you might describe them as generally being a creative type,…

Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders

Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – 5th edition or DSM 5 has a relatively new category called “Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders” or DIC for short, which were previously organized in different sections. This category includes a number of disorders like oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, intermittent explosive…